Government and politics
Mongolia is a parliamentary republic. The parliament is elected by the people and in turn elects the government. The president is elected directly. Mongolia’s constitution guarantees full freedom of expression, religion, and others. Mongolia has a number of political parties, the biggest ones being the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party (MPRP) and the Democratic Party (DP)
Mongolia’s president has a largely symbolic role, but can block the parliament’s decisions, who can then overrule the veto by a 2/3 majority. Mongolia’s Constitution provides three requirements for taking office as President: the individual must be a native-born Mongolian, be at least 45 years of age, and have resided in Mongolia for five years prior to taking office. Incumbent President is Tsakhiagiin ELBEGDORJ was elected President of Mongolia on May 25, 2009 and sworn into office on June 18, 2009.
Full powers of the President of Mongolia: The President of Mongolia shall be the Head of State of Mongolia and embodiment of the unity of the people. The President shall enjoy the full rights and powers as enshrined in the Constitution of Mongolia.
The president shall: Exercise the right to veto against a part or entirety of laws and other decisions adopted by the State Great Khural. The laws or decisions shall remain in force if two thirds of the members present in the session of the State Great Khural do not accept the President’s veto; Propose to the State Great Khural the candidature for the appointment to the post of the Prime Minister in consultation with the majority party or parties in the State Great Khural if none of them has majority of seats, as well as to propose to the State Great Khural the dissolution of the government; Instruct the government on issues within the areas of his competence. If the President issues a decree to that effect, the decree shall become effective upon signature by the Prime Minister; Represent the state with full powers in foreign relations and, in consultation with the State Great Khural, to conclude international treaties on behalf of Mongolia; Appoint and recall heads of plenipotentiary missions of Mongolia to foreign countries in consultation with the State Great Khural; Receive the letters of credence or recall of heads of diplomatic missions of foreign states to Mongolia; Confer state titles and higher military ranks and award orders and medals; Grant pardon; Decide matters related to granting and withdrawing Mongolian citizenship and granting asylum; Head the National Security Council of Mongolia; Declare general or partial conscription; Declare a state of emergency or a state of war on the whole or a part of the national territory in the emergency situation described in paragraphs 2 and 3 of Article 25 of the Constitution of Mongolia in circumstances of urgency where the State Great Khural is in recess and to issue ordinances commencing military operations.
The State Great Khural shall consider within 7 days the Presidential Decree declaring a state of emergency or a state of war and shall approve or disapprove it. If the State Great Khural does not make a decision on the matter, the Presidential Decree shall be void. Be the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of Mongolia.
The president may address messages to the State Great Khural and/or to the people. The President may at his/her own discretion attend sessions of the State Great Khural and report on and submit proposals concerning vital issues of domestic and foreign policies of the country.
2. STATE GREAT HURAL
The word Great Hural (Khurildai) was already in the Mongolian lexicon long ago. Any essential issues of law, state, war and peace ordered by Chinggis Khaan, who founded the Mongol Empire in 1206, were discussed by the nobility at the Great Khurildai. The present State Great Hural of Mongolia is legally similar to a parliament, the legislative organ of eastern and western countries where democracy has developed. In the 1992 Constitution, it is declared that “The State Great Hural is the highest organ of State power, and legislative power shall be vested solely therein”. Since 1992, the State Great Hural has been elected, by citizens qualified to vote, on the basis of universal, free, direct suffrage by secret ballot for a term of four years. The mission of the State Great Hural is to build a nation with humane and civil democratic society and to ensure Mongolian people’s right to govern.
The State Great Hural is unicameral and consists of 76 members elected by mixed electoral system. 48 of them are elected by mixed member proportional system representing single member constituencies and 28 are elected by proportional representation system. The State Great Hural shall be in quorum if a resolution delivered with the consent of three fourth or not less than 57 of total members of the State Great Hural after a new election. With mandate of not less than 57 of total members of the State Great Hural, the State Great Hural shall be considered in existence of its powers. At present, the following political parties are represented in the State Great Hural. Mongolian Democratic Party /www.demparty.mn/ Mongolian People’s Party /www.mpp.mn/ “Justice Coalition” of Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party and Mongolian National Democratic Party /www.maxn.mn/ Civil Will Green Party /www.civilgreen.mn/. The members of parliament elect a chairperson from among their own numbers. The chairperson executes the roles of the speaker of the legislative as well as deputy of the president, and is ranked second in the hierarchy of the state after the president. The chairperson supervises the sessions of the parliament, and is responsible for its voting procedures. Current chairman of the State Great Hural of Mongolia is Mr. Zandaakhuugiin ENKHBOLD. He automatically (ex officio) becomes a member of the National Security Council.
3. PRIME MINISTER AND THE CABINET
The Prime Minister is appointed by Parliament, and can be removed by a vote of no confidence. Incumbent Prime minister is H.E. Chimed Saikhanbileg. The Prime Minister is the the highest member of the Mongolian government’s executive branch, and heads the Cabinet. The Prime Minister also appoints Governors of the 21 aimags of Mongolia, as well as the Governor of the capital, Ulaanbaatar. The Government, headed by the Prime Minister, has a 4-year term. The Prime Minister nominates a cabinet, subject to State Great Hural approval. The Cabinet consists of 16 ministries. Dissolution of the government occurs upon the Prime Minister’s resignation, simultaneous resignation of half the cabinet, or after a State Great Hural vote for dissolution.