Concept of National Security

NATIONAL SECURITY CONCEPT OF MONGOLIA

1. General Provisions

1.1 National Security

1.1.1. Mongolia’s national security shall mean ensuring favorable external and internal conditions for securing and protecting the genuine national interests of Mongolia.

1.1.2. Mongolia’s genuine national interests shall incorporate the very existence of the Mongolian people and its civilization, independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of its borders, national unity, constitutional establishment, security, economic independence and sustainable ecological development.

1.1.3. The prime purpose of ensuring national security shall be safeguarding and guaranteeing national independence, sovereignty and unity.

1.1.4. Parliamentary governance built on respect for human rights and freedoms, the rule of law as well as a democratic state structure built on social stability shall be the preeminent guarantee for the assurance of national security.

1.1.5. Mongolia’s national security shall be attained when the interrelationship between state, society and civilian security is assured.

1.1.6. Protection and preservation of national history, language, culture, heritage, customs and traditions shall serve as fundamental and vital requisites for the existence and vitality of the Mongolian identity and nationality.

1.2. Principles of Ensuring National Security

1.2.1. Respect for a National Sense of Patriotism

Mongolia’s national security shall depend upon active actions of each Mongolian citizen as creator, defender and holder of national values.

1.2.2 Interaction between State and Citizen
The prime responsibility of the state shall be to ensure national security. The state shall provide its citizens with wide-ranging information and knowledge on security issues as well as possibilities for cooperation and contribution towards the protection and enhancement of national security.

1.2.3. Integrated Security Strategy
National security shall be assured through the interrelationship among the “security of the existence of Mongolia”, “economic security”, “internal security”, “human security”, “environment security” and “information security”.

1.2.4. Knowledge Based Approach
The approach to security and action-making shall be based on knowledge, information and analysis.

1.2.5. Realistic Approach
Potential threats and challenges shall be realistically identified and remedies and resources shall be efficiently found.

1.2.6. Globalization Impact
While world globalization increases the vulnerability and dependency of a state upon others; it offers opportunities for safeguarding national interests through use of external ways and means.

II. Security of the Existence of Mongolia

III. Security of Social Order and State System

3.1. Security of Existence
Assurance of Mongolia’s independence, sovereignty, inviolability of borders, territorial integrity, security of Mongolian civilization, population and genetic uniqueness shall constitute a foundation for the security of its existence.

3.1.1 Independence and Sovereignty

3.1.1.1. Commitment to a unified foreign policy and supremacy of national interests in foreign affairs shall be consistently maintained.

3.1.1.2. The basic methods for ensuring Mongolia’s independence and sovereignty shall be political and diplomatic actions. Accordingly a multi-pillared foreign policy directed towards building active relationships and cooperation with foreign states and international institutions shall be implemented.

3.1.1.3 A consistent peacemaking foreign policy coupled with active support for international community efforts aimed at strengthening peace and security shall be implemented.

3.1.1.4 Good neighbor friendly relations and wide-ranging cooperation with the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China shall be developed. More specifically, national interests and the history of bilateral relationships shall be taken into account while regional peace and stability as well as a general balance of relations with neighbors shall be sought.

3.1.1.5. Pursuant to a “third neighbor” strategy, bilateral and multilateral cooperation with highly developed democracies in political, economic, cultural and humanitarian affairs shall be undertaken.

3.1.1.6 Bilateral relations and multilateral cooperation shall be continuously pursued in security and defense areas with Mongolia’s two neighboring states, the USA, member states of NATO, the European Union and the Asia-Pacific region along with active participation in international peacemaking missions.

3.1.1.7 Active cooperation with UN Security Council member-states and international organizations shall be made on implementation of UN General Assembly resolutions on strengthening Mongolia’s international security.

3.1.1.8 Active support shall be given to regional countries’ policies and efforts towards strengthening strategic stability and establishing security cooperation mechanisms in the Asia-Pacific region and East Asia, including North-East Asia.

3.1.2 Inviolability of Borders and Territorial Integrity

3.1.2.1. With a view to ensuring territorial security, Mongolia’s land administration policy and land management system shall be improved.

3.1.2.2. An Integrated defense and armed forces system based upon local defense shall be put in place while strengthening armed forces’ professionalism and capacity-building. Increased citizen participation in the border protection strategy shall be encouraged.

3.1.2.3. An early-warning and rapid-deployment system shall be put into operation to prevent mass refugee border-crossings or related emergency situations while a set of legal, political and diplomatic actions shall be undertaken.

3.1.2.4. Structural, technical and technological renovation shall be made on border protection, surveillance and a rapid deployment information network established.

3.1.2.5. Border area regional economies shall be developed in accordance with unified national interests, Mongolia’s sovereignty, inviolability of borders and territorial integrity.

3.1.2.6. The supreme state authority shall make decisions on opening or closing border checkpoints or making modifications to the border checkpoint regime.

3.1.2.7. Border area development strategy and its foreign connections shall be defined and regulated by unified state policy.

3.1.3. Security of Population and Genetic Identity

3.1.3.1. Mongolia’s population growth, human development and quality of life shall be supported.

3.1.3.2. Favorable conditions shall be provided to citizens studying or working abroad for returning and working and living in the homeland.

3.1.3.3 Favorable conditions shall be provided to Mongolians and their children born abroad and having foreign citizenship for traveling, living, studying, working or having access to insurance in Mongolia. The state shall honor and protect citizens’ interests arising from dual citizenship.

3.1.3.4. Accelerated efforts to reduce the negative effects upon the nation’s genetic heritage of inbreeding, chronic alcoholism and drug addiction shall be taken.

3.1.3.5. A current record of foreign citizens, aliens and migrants shall be maintained while registration, monitoring, information data processing, legal environment, management and organization shall be improved.

3.1.4. Security of Civilization

3.1.4.1. The State shall have primary responsibility for protecting, developing and promoting the study of Mongolian history, language, culture, religion, customs and traditions, encouraging academic literature, films and works of art, protecting Mongolia’s physical and non-physical cultural heritage. It shall take actions to establish a World Mongolist Study Center in Ulaanbaatar and involve foreign Mongolist Study scholars in research, study and publication and set up Study Center branches in other countries.

3.1.4.2. Protect and develop the Mongolian language and script as well as increase the instruction and usage of traditional Mongolian script.

3.1.4.3. Undertake measures to promote in-depth education in history, culture, customs and traditions and foster a sense of patriotism in children and youth through social, family and educational institutions.

3.1.4.4. Undertake efforts to assess and recognize the works, talents and achievements of outstanding personalities and their contributions to culture, art, national customs and traditions.

3.1.4.5. Develop wide-ranging cultural relations with other countries, including third neighbor countries, and popularize Mongolian culture and history through diplomatic missions and individual citizens all over the world.

3.1.4.6. Support proposals and initiatives by citizens on the prevention of Mongolian historical and cultural artifacts from being smuggled abroad. Through appropriate measures seek, research, recover and restore items of Mongolian cultural heritage existing abroad in active cooperation with foreign nations.

3.1.4.7. Revive and develop Buddhist religion and culture. Encourage activities of monasteries and temples towards enlightenment of societal wisdom, strengthening national unity, alleviating poverty, disaster relief and protection of the natural environment.

3.1.3.8. Maximize support for research and studies on Buddhism which protected and preserved for many centuries the Mongolian people’s intellectual civilization.

3.2. Economic Security
The basic precondition for achieving and maintaining economic security shall be the adoption of a sustainable development model that ensures independent economic development and a natural environment conducive to human security and peaceful living.
A constructive strategy shall be put forward to design a multi-pillared economic structure, balanced investment policy and financial security as well as an efficient policy on such issues as energy, mineral resources, foreign trade and regional economic integration.

3.2.1. Multi-Pillared Economic Structure

3.2.1.1. Self-sustained economic capacity shall be built and a multi-pillared economic structure competitive in certain areas on the world market shall be put in place.

3.2.1.2. With a view to ensuring the basic needs of the population, economic sustainability and efficiency, generating national revenues and assuring national security, strategically significant sectors such as mineral resources, food, agriculture, energy, road, transportation, information, communications industries and finances shall be developed in accordance with international and EU standards.

3.2.1.3. A transparent and responsible mining and mineral resource industry shall be developed while derived revenues shall be redirected to ensuring short-term and medium-term sustainable economic development, establishing a multi-pillared economic structure, supporting human development and developing education, health and public sports.

3.2.1.4. Infrastructure industry development shall be linked to national security requirements while economic efficiency shall be a criterion for making investments. Primacy of Mongolia’s national interests shall be the guiding principle when developing the nation’s railway network.

3.2.1.5. Support and encourage on a priority basis the production of goods and services that take into account Mongolia’s clean natural environment; intellectual strengths and geographic advantages, competitiveness in international markets, products exportable by air transportation and information technology with high added value.

3.2.1.6. Set international standards in the education sector. Coordinate activities between universities, institutes and research institutions and improve human development.

3.2.1.7. Direct scientific research, studies and innovations in strategically important industries while increasing economic efficiency and competitiveness.

3.2.1.8. Support high technology development while developing competitive capability on the international market in such sectors as nanotechnology, biotechnology, communications and information technology.

3.2.1.9. Protect the domestic labor market while undertaking a consistent strategy on eradication of poverty by creating secure jobs.

3.2.2. Balanced Investment Strategy

3.2.2.1. Devise a strategy to increase and protect a proportion of and participation by domestic investors in the economy while creating opportunities for national investors to expand their businesses, increase their competitive capacity in international markets and play a decisive role in the advancement of economic security, development and progress.

3.2.2.2. Design a strategy whereby the investment of any foreign country does not exceed one third of overall foreign investment in Mongolia. Undertake a policy to restrict investments by foreign state-owned companies and balance the volume of investments by neighboring and highly developed countries within strategically important sectors.

3.2.2.3. Create a legal environment and conditions to attract foreign investments with no harm to shares of Mongolia’s vital economic entities sold on international stock exchange markets.

3.2.2.4. Make foreign investments instrumental in increasing competitiveness, financial and managerial efficiency, introducing new technologies and defining long-term development goals.

3.2.2.5. Decrease excessive dependency on foreign trade transit transportation and as a land-locked country negotiate mutually beneficial long-term bilateral or trilateral agreements with the two neighboring countries. Create conditions to have access to sea ports for export of goods onto world markets, organize transportation routes to sea-ports and increase the flow of transit transportation across the territory of Mongolia.

3.2.3. Budget and Finances Sector Security

3.2.3.1 Ensure economic security and develop a healthy sustainable and well-disciplined financial sector supporting long-term national growth and development.

3.2.3.2 Government borrowing shall be directed to real economic sectors and shall be sufficient and proportionate as to ensure financial security.

3.2.3.3 Maintain national foreign exchange and gold reserves at a level not less than the amount of annual import requirement. Undertake long-run measures to increase foreign reserves and improve their management.

3.2.3.4 Increase monetary policy efficiency to improve purchasing power and convertibility of the national currency and maintain its stability. Use the national currency only for all domestic payment and settlement transactions and maintain a percentage and volume of the national currency on the domestic currency markets at a proportionate level.

3.2.3.5. Establish an inter-bank risk fund to reinstate the principle that the state rejects any reimbursement of losses caused by financial institution wrongdoing.

3.2.3.6. Put in place a system of monitoring major foreign and domestic payments and settlements, loans and letters of credit transaction flows along with a system on the prevention, detection, investigation and punishment of economic and financial crimes.

3.2.4. Energy and Mineral Resource Sector Policy

3.2.4.1. While developing the mineral resource sector give importance to ensuring national security so as to avoid becoming merely a commodity supplier or an arena of confrontation of conflicting interests among national and foreign political interests or businesses, as well as giving importance to preventing environmental degradation. Improve mining sector transparency and responsibility as well as overseeing mining industry incomes.

3.4.2.2. Create conditions for extensive use of coal, a main domestic source of energy, for decreasing imports and increasing exports, supporting local output and increasing jobs. Develop less expensive energy production with less negative environmental impacts so as to fully supply energy and fuel demands by domestic production through the use of coal and other energy sources (such as solar, wind, hydro-electric and bio-fuel) by the year 2020.

3.2.4.3. Reduce direct petroleum dependency on one country so that domestic output fully supplies energy demands by the year 2020. Prevent the risk of price fluctuations and maintain a national petroleum reserve at a level of not less than six months supply.

3.2.4.4. Develop a nuclear energy sector in accordance with national interests and the principle of use for peaceful purposes. Develop nuclear production facilities for use, processing, conversion and enrichment of radioactive materials.

3.2.5. Foreign Trade and Integration Policy

3.2.5.1. Reduce the nation’s economic vulnerability as a small market with an excessive dependency on imports and a small number of export goods.

3.2.5.2. Reduce the foreign trade deficit by applying tariff and non-tariff means to support domestic production. Supply national industries with strategic goods and commodities by creating favorable conditions for the import of industrial equipment.

3.2.5.3. Undertake a policy of avoiding excessive dependency on one country’s goods in the overall import spectrum. Put in place a monitoring and management system for commodity procurement with particular attention to wholesale and retail sales artificial pricing, monopoly and unfair competition. Make legal arrangements to protect domestic production and markets.

3.2.5.4. Make decisions on joining regional or international integration arrangements and concluding free trade agreements based upon Mongolia’s economic security and economic development objectives as determined by research and studies.

3.3. Internal Security
The foundation of internal security shall rest on ensuring human rights and freedoms, adherence to the Constitution, respect for the rule of law, continuity of the Mongolian state governance and national unity, support for political parties, civil society, free press and media, individual liberties as well as safeguarding public order and social stability.

3.3.1. Strengthening Constitutional Establishment

3.3.1.1. Consistently undertake a principle of administering state management and governance, state power distribution, democracy, rule of law and national unity set out in the Constitution of Mongolia.

3.3.1.2. Match administrative territorial division and the electoral system with commonly held national interests and national integrated development goals.

3.3.1.3. Take resolute actions against any attempt to seize unconstitutionally state power. Create conditions to guarantee citizens the right to elect or to be elected and to participate in free and independent elections.

3.3.1.4. Improve legal, organizational and monitoring capacities to detect, disrupt and prevent attempts by any foreign elements to influence the outcome of Mongolia’s elections.

3.3.1.5. Strengthen the national system of ensuring human rights and freedoms and improve connectivity of inter-institutional actions to assure free elections.

3.3.1.6. Ensure oversight and balance of power among legislative, executive and judicial branches.

3.3.1.7. Continue to develop a judiciary system that is independent and responsible and assures justice and equality for every citizen before the law. Enact laws, undertake training and establish policies to strengthen the competence and independence of the judiciary.

3.3.2. Mongolian State Continuity and Strengthening State Governance

3.3.2.1. Strengthen transparent and responsible public service providing equal services to citizens and undertake a policy to recruit for public service professional and qualified personnel. By developing electronic governance direct public services to citizens efficiently, promptly and economically.

3.3.2.2. Promote government transparency and accountability and expand anti-corruption efforts at the national and local levels and ensure participation of political parties and civil society in these efforts. Intensify corruption prevention and advocacy efforts and nurture a sense of intolerance towards corruption.

3.3.2.3. Establish a legal and organizational basis to ensure continuity of state policy.

3.3.2.4. Improve the state’s governing capacity to make economic adjustments through efficient policy ways and means.

3.3.2.5. Undertake a policy to restrict state participation in businesses except for activities in strategically important economic sectors and delegate economic functions to civil or private entities.

3.3.2.6. Refine in line with international standards public servants’ ethical, knowledge and skill requirements, increase their salary and create conditions for efficient job performance.

3.3.2.7. Provide public servants with knowledge on security, create conditions for capacity building, professionalism perfection and fair competition as well as restricting by law conflicts of interest.

3.3.3. Strengthening National Unity

3.3.3.1. The foundation for ensuring national security, unity and consensus shall rest on good social morality, sound social psychology and shared social values.

3.3.3.2. The State, citizens and mass media shall jointly implement a policy to shape a social psychology in accordance with which citizens will be proud of their country, nationality, national accomplishments and progress and respect national interests, ethics, law and statehood.

3.3.3.3. Strengthen national unity and social consensus which guarantee national security, development and progress and prevent any actions leading to disintegration of the country or society and outbreaks of internal conflicts or clashes.

3.3.3.4. Take resolute actions against any development which discriminates against citizens on the basis of nationality, religion, faith, gender or belief, instigating favoritism to persons based on place of birth or violating human rights and freedoms and consequently disrupting national unity and social stability.

3.3.3.5. Respect integrity of national interests and unity of state policy and actions at central and local levels. Conduct all state official affairs in the Mongolian language.

3.3.4. Social Stability

3.3.4.1. Support further evolution of political parties and internal democracy and increase their obligations and responsibilities before the nation and society.

3.3.4.2. Further develop civil society through equal participation and consensus with non-governmental organizations, develop state policies to encourage the exercise of oversight over the state. Establish a legal basis to support non-governmental organizations offering services to society and develop state and civil society partnerships.

3.3.4.3. Enhance the autonomous and independent status of the media, improve responsibility, professional competence and ethical conduct norms of media personnel and maintain social stability.

3.3.4.4. Prevent possible public disorder or chaos due to decline in law and order, discipline and responsibility.

3.4. Human Security
The basis of ensuring human security for a Mongolian shall be creating healthy and safe living conditions and environment, ensuring food security, guaranteeing secure residence and protecting them from becoming a victim of crime or assault.

3.4.1. Creating Conditions for Healthy Life

3.4.1.1. Support development of public health sector and carry out activities directed to encourage and inculcate a sense of leading a healthy life and increasing health education to citizens at all levels of educational establishments through mass media.

3.4.1.2. Develop and increase opportunities for children, youth and adults to engage in public physical events and sports and exercise and take fitness classes.

3.4.1.3. Improve the population’s consumption of healthy and nutritious foods, prevent the spread of contagious diseases and decrease nutritional deficiencies.

3.4.1.4. Take actions to increase research and studies on current and emerging contagious diseases, detect diseases at an earlier stage and take preventive measures to limit their spread.

3.4.1.5. Ensure availability of contingency plans of action during the breakout and spread of contagious diseases and establish a national reserve of preventive medical supplies, vaccines and bio-medications.

3.4.1.6. Take measures for early detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other prevalent non-contagious diseases and for decreasing ailments caused by accidents or occupation and to increase the longevity of the population.

3.4.1.7. Decrease maternal and infant mortality rate and take measures for early detection of congenital defects.

3.4.1.8. Strengthen the system to provide the population primary medical package treatment and services as well as medical emergency treatment assistance and ensure equal access by the population.

3.4.1.9. Improve a health insurance system and protect citizens from risks arising from medical treatment or services.

3.4.1.10. Observe international standard practice in the training system of medical care, service and health sector human resources and introduce internationally recognized medical treatment and diagnosis equipment and technology.

3.4.1.11. Constantly enhance the capability of prompt delivery of necessary medical assistance response during disaster or emergency situations.

3.4.1.12. Improve the standard requirements for oversight over and coordination of production, sale, export and import of hospital instruments, tools, medications, vaccines and bio-medicaments; develop domestic production and ensure quality and security through establishment of a biotechnology complex.

3.4.2. Food Security

3.4.2.1. Ensure that food supply needs are met and create conditions for steady, stable and sufficient supply of foodstuffs for the population that meet proper nutrition standards.

3.4.2.2. Undertake technical and economic measures to provide a stable supply of 70 percent of life-essential foodstuffs for Mongolians through domestic production.

3.4.2.3. Ensure a guaranteed food supply through conclusion of long-term agreements on procurement of strategically important foodstuffs, forming a national reserve of strategically important foodstuffs for use during disasters and creating a seasonal reserve for a steady supply demands of Mongolia’s cities, towns and other communities.

3.4.2.4. Supply the population with sufficient drinking water and increase monitoring and management of the quality and security of water supplies.

3.4.2.5. Establish a fused system at all stages to exercise quality control, monitoring and verification of preparation, production, sale, service and storage of food raw materials.

3.4.2.6. Reform veterinary practice, increase a rapid-response capability to address the outbreak or spread of infectious animal diseases and improve the system for disease protection and for ensuring bio-security. Protect the genetic fund of Mongolian domestic farm animals and acclimated varieties of grains. Improve the monitoring of the use of natural and human-friendly food bags, packaging materials, fertilizers and pesticides.

3.4.2.7 Take measures to improve food quality and food safety requirements in accordance with international standards, enhance the management arrangements and attain international accreditation.

3.4.2.8. Establish a system to import foodstuffs only via economic entities and ensure quality control and security through establishing an integrated preliminary quality control, documentation and verification system for imported foodstuffs and conducting assessments on quality guarantees during the import stage.

3.4.2.9. Monitor and conduct risk assessments of nanotechnology and biotechnology and take measures to protect the public from potential harm.

3.4.3 Living environment security

3.4.3.1. Ensure the safety of citizens’ living and working environments and decrease disaster risks as important means for assuring human safety.

3.4.3.2. For the purpose of dispersing the capital city’s rising population density make plans for satellite cities and link suburban areas by highways, mass transit systems, energy supply and engineering constructions.

3.4.3.3. Integrate city and town general development plans with a view to creating a safe living and working environment for citizens and refine law and public policy to assure the strict observance of publicly adopted plans for city or town development.

3.4.3.4. Reduce air, water and soil pollution in metropolitan areas, increase efficiency of sanitation and hygiene systems and physical plants and improve waste and garbage management.

3.4.3.5. Assess the structural tolerance of “earthquake-proof” and “earthquake-resistant” apartments, other dwellings, production and service business buildings and engineering structures. Make arrangements to reinforce or tear down buildings and structures not resisting earthquakes of magnitude 8 on the Richter scale and construct new buildings in accordance with official standards.

3.4.3.6. Improve structure and construction material quality and hygiene requirements compatible with international standards and introduce a quality control system governed by professional associations and independent organizations.

3.4.3.7. Optimize obligation and responsibility of citizens to create and maintain a healthy living environment.

3.4.4. Protection of citizens from transnational crime

3.4.4.1. Improve the protection of citizens from terrorism and transnational crime or violence.

3.4.4.2. Prevent citizens in particular, children and women from becoming victims of human trafficking, improve the legal environment and maximize efforts to investigate, disrupt and suppress such criminal activities and punish wrongdoers.

3.4.4.3. Enhance a national capacity to control and monitor the flow of narcotics and substances affecting human psyches and vigorously combat the illegal sale, possession or consumption of all substances as defined by law.

3.4.4.4. Intensify a training and information campaign to prevent the public from crimes and increase international cooperation in this area.

3.5. Security of the natural environment
Maintaining a balance of nature, protecting water resources, mitigating impact of climate change and land degradation, preventing harm from a variety of biological deficiencies, reducing risks of environment pollution, natural disasters and adversities shall be prerequisites for assuring healthy human life and security as well as preserving the natural environment.

3.5.1. Prevention from deficiency in water resources

3.5.1.1. Improve the structure and organization of the water management sector, its control and monitoring mechanism, establish the practice that users bear a responsibility for water resources protection and create conditions for sustained drinking water production and supply in an amount sufficient for the population.

3.5.1.2. Undertake legal coordination specifying the mechanism for financing assessment, protection and increase of water resources as well as collecting reimbursements for the cost of water exploration expeditions funded by the state budget.

3.5.1.3. The state shall fund budget efforts for water exploration to evaluate and determine underground water reservoir, hydro-geology mapping and recording of the resource and develop a database, monitoring and assessment network and strengthen the capacity-building of research organizations.

3.5.1.4. Protect water resources by developing large underground fresh water reservoirs and river water sources under special national protection and restricting economic activities in the large lakes’ basins constituting fresh water resources.

3.5.1.5. Introduce use-and-manage system for water basins, determine usable surface and underground water reserves without destabilizing the ecosystem in the basins and strictly follow water use limits. Develop a legal framework allowing no user to exceed use or consumption rights.

3.5.1.6. Establish or enlarge national parks in order to place water sources at Hangai and Hentii mountain ranges and the vicinity of Lake Huvsgul into the national reserve, and prohibit mining activities in the parks.

3.5.1.7. Improve the surface water usage and make adjustments in the water flows of large rivers, construct artificial water reservoirs for collecting waters of rain, snow and ice runoff in humid climate areas rich with energy resources, establish covered water storage and transmission systems in desert and steppe dry areas with severe surface evaporation.

3.5.1.8. Introducewater economy technology and rational water use practices, increase the beneficial effects of prudent water and energy use, restrict the use of underground water for agricultural irrigation and drinking water use for non-food production and support a strategy of advanced technology purification of waste water and re-using purified water.

3.5.2. Mitigation of impacts of climate change and land degradation

3.5.2.1. Develop a policy and capacity-building to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change and desertification, establish a national structure for policy coordination,
mobilize international financial funds to undertake on-site inspection and study missions and ensure comprehensive participation in the efforts.

3.5.2.2. Establish a legal environment to make payments for pasture use and transfer a responsibility to possess, protect and restore the pasture, make a region-to-region assessment on existing and potential capacity of pastures, set a proper proportion on number, type and structure of livestock.

3.5.2.3. Place pasture resources, Menen steppe, desert oasis and saxaul bushes under special national protection and establish methods for soil restoration and plant revival on grasslands and develop resources to protect soil fertility and moisture.

3.5.2.4. Reduce land surface layer degradation through soil protection and introduction of efficient irrigation equipment and technology.

3.5.2.5. Introduce science-and-technology know-how into animal husbandry business practices and lifestyle of herdsmen, restore and preserve the traditional way of thinking and practical herding abilities, enable herdsmen to sense and adapt their way of life into the rapidly changing ecosystem. To this end, educate and implement pilot projects and programs on management skills, increase and expand public training and information campaigns.

3.5.2.6. Make effective the legal arrangement motivating pasture users to restore and protect degraded or destroyed lands due to mining activities.

3.5.2.7. Educate the public on protection of the natural environment, carry out countrywide information dissemination through involvement of temples and civil society organizations advocating historical and religious tradition and culture on protecting and preserving nature.

3.5.3. Preservation of biological diversity and prevention of resource deficiency

3.5.3.1. Carry out a complex of scientifically-supported actions to research, protect and properly use natural habitat resources, such as forests, rivers, lakes, wild animals and plants.

3.5.3.2. Provide sustainable natural development by evaluating ecological effects on the management of natural resources. Make accurate eco-economic assessment of the natural resources and establish a payment system for damages caused to the natural environment.

3.5.3.3. Prohibit export of wild plants, forest-derived resources and logging and increase the forest reserve by two percent.

3.5.3.4. Introduce technology for substitution of wood, resolve the issue of fuel through increasing production of wood-substituting materials, increase the import of wood and wood-substituting materials.

3.5.3.5. Enrich the habitat with rare endangered wild animals and plants, as well as those beneficial to natural ecosystems under special national protection and apply more
bio-technical methods to support and sustain those habitats. Establish a fund for preserving and growing species and establishing a protected genetic fund for rare endangered wild animals, plants and micro organisms.

3.5.3.6. While adapting non-native wild animals, plants or micro-organisms, prevent changes from occurring in the biodiversity gene pool and establish a monitoring system.

3.5.3.7. Improve the legislative environment for regulating issues relating to gene modification and ensure bio security, assess the risks and increase the capability to control and monitor gene manipulation.

3.5.3.8. Develop a road-map to protect nature, increase public participation in planning and implementing relevant activities and encourage increased engagement of civil society, private organizations and local population in forestation and reforestation, protection, planting, restoring, researching and monitoring rare endangered species, targeted wild animals and plants.

3.5.4. Reduction of environmental pollution

3.5.4.1. Implement a mechanism requiring polluters to pay for the harm and damage caused to nature, restrict the amount of waste at the pollution sites, prohibit equipment and technology adversely affecting nature and encourage the introduction of advanced technologies that decrease waste.

3.5.4.2. Participate in international community efforts on combating trans-boundary air and water pollution and increase environment evaluation and monitoring capacity.

3.5.4.3. Support a policy of developing facilities to recycle waste for energy production and other raw materials. Improve the identification, management and monitoring of dangerous wastes and prevent the emergence of harmful or dangerous waste concentration sites.

3.5.4.4. Produce energy, heat and clean fuel for public utilities through processing raw coal by heating, gasification and fluidization, evaluate environment impacts so as to introduce advanced effective production technology. Increase the use of solar, wind and renewable sources of energy as well as nuclear energy.

3.5.4.5. Improve legislation and increase control capacity on chemical warfare or toxic agents, biological materials and radioactive minerals.

3.5.5. Reduce risks of natural calamities and disasters

3.5.5.1. Undertake a risk assessment of each disaster caused by natural or human factors or technological failures and take actions to minimize the risks.

3.5.5.2. Strengthen the disaster management system, take actions at the national level to reduce vulnerabilities, create conditions to encourage participation in the efforts by central and local governments, specialized organizations, private entities and citizens and increase their capacities.

3.5.5.3. Systematically prepare the equipment, human resources, research means and forecast technology and ensure continuity of a network for monitoring and evaluation of natural calamities and potential disasters, improve ways and means for prompt delivery of information to customers and establish a disaster early-warning system.

3.6. Information security
Assurance of national interests on information and guaranteeing information integrity, confidentiality and availability for the state, citizen and private organizations shall be a basis for ensuring information security.

3.6.1. Assurance of national interests in the field of information

3.6.1.1. Information and information security are of vital importance to ensure national security, support national development, generate national values and develop the social intellect.

3.6.1.2. Restrict outside entities’ attempts to influence the social psychology, social stability and individual consciousness and ethics of Mongolians. Develop a capacity to disrupt or counter any information that promotes or supports animosity, discrimination or hatred and develop a social mentality of non-acceptance of such efforts.

3.6.1.3. Establish and develop a capacity to minimize the danger of intrusion into the national information infrastructure and attempts to weaken economic and social capability.

3.6.1.4. Rights of foreign-investment mass media activities in Mongolia shall be restricted if they harm national security. Ownership and association with media shall be transparent and their activities – realistic, balanced and responsible. Support publication and promotion of national values through mass media and contain at proper level information on foreign religion, culture or state policy.

3.6.1.5. Develop a national policy on legal arrangement, standard, management, organization and training on information security to enhance social awareness and information security knowledge.

3.6.1.7. Develop information security policy, procedures, risk management, internal auditing and assessment capacity in governmental and private organizations.

3.6.1.8. Apply advanced cost-effective solutions on information security once a risk assessment and recommendations are made. Highly educated and professional national specialists shall be employed to manage information security systems for governmental organizations and key national infrastructure facilities.

3.6.1.9. Support and develop national manufacture of competitive information and communications systems, equipment and software, develop solutions to national information security and reduce technological dependency.

3.6.1.10. Specifically support national fundamental and applied sciences research, study and training on information and communication technology as well as information security.

3.6.1.11. Develop national capacity-building on computational forensics analysis to combat cyber crime or investigate, detect and collect evidence of crimes.

3.6.1.12. Develop and expand international cooperation to ensure information security, prevent the danger of confrontation in information space and combat cyber crime.

3.6.2. Integrity of information

3.6.2.1. Integrity of information shall be ensured through protection of information, information space and infrastructure from illegal intrusion, manipulation or theft.

3.6.2.2. In order to ensure the integrity of government information centralize accurate, realistic, time-effective and essential information in the government data base, create conditions for sharing and exchanging information by competent authorities.

3.6.2.3. Prohibit the collection, storage, use or transfer of information on an individual except as authorized by law or permitted by the individual.

3.6.2.4. Develop national capacity-building to reduce vulnerabilities of the national information space and infrastructure.

3.6.2.5. For the purpose of ensuring the integrity of electronic information develop a digital signature public key infrastructure, reduce network system and web-site vulnerabilities, establish secure and safe infrastructure, communications, information transmission and access control through introducing an encryption system, malicious code protection system and modification management.

3.6.2.6. With a view to develop information security infrastructure use principles of state-private organizations’ partnership and provide policy support to internal outsourcing for information security.

3.6.3. Confidentiality of information

3.6.3.1. Safety shall be ensured through protection against illegal access, intrusion, disclosure of information or its components.

3.6.3.2. Refine government information categorization and security classifications, improve legal environment for management and organization of classified information protection to a higher level.

3.6.3.3. Improve the legal framework to categorize, fix the value, record, store, transmit, transfer and monitor state data or information.

3.6.3.4. Prevent information loss or leaks from communication lines or channels, establish protected infrastructure for government networks and data exchanges, ensure security of wireless communications.

3.6.3.5 Put in operation function-based access control at governmental organizations and key infrastructure facilities, establish monitoring and analysis, establish a capacity-building to detect and block any intrusion.

3.6.3.6. Introduce a cipher, digital signature and secure connection to transmit and store electronic data at governmental organizations and key infrastructure facilities.

3.6.3.7. Prohibit intrusion on individual or family privacy, correspondence, information confidentiality, rights and freedoms except in cases of ensuring national security and following all legal procedures.

3.6.4. Availability of information

3.6.4.1. The availability of information shall be made by providing rights and freedom to search, collect, generate, transmit and disseminate information not prohibited by law and free access to information infrastructure, components and services.

3.6.4.2. Supplying state policy makers and the public with wide-ranging information and integrated understanding of threats and risks facing the nation shall be a prerequisite for ensuring national security.

3.6.4.3. Establish a national security data base and develop a mechanism to provide citizens with wide-ranging information on national security through the State Great Hural, local government organizations and media. Maximize efforts to set up governance open information sources, methodologies and procedures to efficiently use these sources in the electronic governance services.

3.6.4.4. Facilitate and support mass media and infrastructure management to deliver information to the public in a speedy and expeditious manner and ensure reliable operation.

3.6.4.5. Create a favorable environment for mass media organizations to look for and publish information not prohibited by law.

3.6.4.6. Ensure that national information infrastructure develops a readiness capacity to counter and overcome intrusions, develops planning for ensuring the continuity and restoration of activities, establishes a monitoring, analysis and warning center, develops a national system on rapid response to computer emergency situations.

IV. Security of Citizen`s Rights and Freedoms

Mongolia shall improve and develop the national security structural system with a view to provide consistent protection of national interests and ensure national independence and sovereignty in a rapidly changing security environment.

4.1. Goals to improve the national security structural system

4.1.1. The primary responsibility of the state shall be considering the national interests at all stages of state affairs and giving emphasis to ensuring national security.

4.1.2. Make necessary legislation, management and organizational reforms on the structural system to ensure national security and make it integrated and effective.

4.1.3. Improve the connectivity between institutions designated to ensure national security, eliminate the duplication of activities and enhance inter-agency coordination.

4.1.4. Increase ethical, professional, responsibility and law-abiding requirements for personnel in the organizations designated to ensure national security and enhance their legal status and welfare.

4.1.5. Insurance of national security shall be based on information and analysis as well as individual and collaborative efforts of the state, civil society, private entities and individuals.

4.1.6. Prioritize information collection and analysis in national security activities, timely information supply to relevant governmental organizations, decision-makers and citizens, establishment of enhanced national security data base and reform information compilation, protection and use regimes.

4.1.7. Enhance national capacity of security and foreign policy research institutions and increase their participation in state policy making.

4.1.8. Promote and encourage participation of citizens, private businesses and civil society in the efforts to provide and protect national security interests, enhance methods and areas of cooperation.

4.1.9. Strengthen national capacity-building to overcome disasters, unexpected dangers and incursions and reduce risks. Enhance a readiness for cooperation among organizations designated to ensure national security and other governmental entities during an emergency.

4.2. Structural System and management for ensuring national security

4.2.1. The State Great Hural, the President of Mongolia, the National Security Council, the Government of Mongolia, law enforcement and special task-force organizations, ministries and local governments shall govern national security functions.

4.2.2. Organizations with legislative, executive and judicial power and authority, local self-governing organizations shall implement this concept expressed in the Constitution of Mongolia, legislation and other legal resolutions within their respective jurisdiction.

4.2.3. Mongolia’s citizens and civil society institutions shall strictly observe legislation to ensure national security and take active part in its implementation.

4.2.4. The National Security Council shall be responsible for coordinating nation-wide efforts for ensuring the implementation of the National Security Concept and security related national legislation and governmental policies.

4.2.5. The National Security Council shall coordinate the National Security Concept implementation policies, strategies and actions and adopt rules and regulations.

4.2.6. Governors of the capital city, aimags, sums and districts shall be mandated to organize the implementation of the National Security Concept, related legislation, policies and resolutions.

4.2.7. Information and reports delivered by relevant designated officials and other information received by the National Security Council through its working channels shall comprise the national security data base.

4.3. Implementation and monitoring system of the National Security Concept

4.3.1. The National Security Council shall develop criteria on monitoring and analyzing implementation of the National Security Concept and evaluation of the security situation.

4.3.2. Sub-Council Members of the National Security Council, Governors of aimags and capital city shall communicate their information and reports to the National Security Council.

4.3.3. The National Security Council shall administer constant monitoring on National Security Concept implementation, related legislation, policies and resolutions and evaluate the status of national security condition.

4.3.4. The Head of the National Security Council shall make annual report on progress of the National Security Concept implementation and national security condition to the State Great Hural in a closed session.

V. Other provisions

The National Security Concept implementation policies and actions shall not be interrupted and if necessary shall be modified or improved in accordance with the rapidly changing security environment.

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